Лики толерантности
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Портал: Институт социального конструирования Центр социальных инноваций Толерантность





On August 25, 2001 the Government of the Russian Federation approved the Federal Grant Program "The Formation of Attitudes of Tolerant Consciousness and Prevention of Extremism in Russian Society (2001 - 2005)." The approval of the program resulted from some circumstances which are related to cases of tolerance and intolerance in a situation of increasing social diversity in Russia.

First of all, with the development of a civil society both individuals and social groups have become more aware of their position in the environment, above all in the system of socio-economic, ethnic, cultural and cross-confessional relations. This process can be accompanied by the growth of various prejudices and phobias in group consciousness such as xenophobia as a reaction to an encounter with representatives of another culture, ethnophobia, migrantophobia, caucasesphobia, anti-Semitism. These phobias lead to the violation of human rights, nationalism, discrimination and, associated with them, intolerance. So there is a dangerous tendency of growing of cross-ethnic, cross-confessional, socio-economic, cross-generational and political intolerance under conditions of increasing social diversity in Russian society. The mentioned forms of intolerance often become the sources of extremist movements, escalating hatred, national discord and social conflicts in the society. Under these conditions, the state program of the development of social norms of tolerance is a way to counteract the growing social aggressive culture, national conflicts, extremism, terrorism and fanaticism.

Second, on the state level, under the conditions of the modernization of the Russian economy, the socio-economic development of the country depends much on the successful development of a culture of negotiation, the art of compromise, productive competition among different financial-industrial groups, and among small and middle businesses. What is especially clear is the appearance in the economic field of the pragmatic function of tolerance as a social norm that determines the balance of interests of competing sides. For example, any manifestations of intolerance or even unwillingness to accept tolerance in the negotiations lead to failure. Thus we can analyze the influence of negotiation culture, in which negotiations appear as social norms of tolerance, on the economics of developed countries. This analysis allows us to say that the development of tolerance in Russia is necessary, not only for increasing the tolerance of different groups towards each other and developing a social strategy to counteract extremism, but also for increasing economic efficiency.

Third, Russia has to join the international community for counteraction against discrimination, racism, xenophobia and associated with them intolerance, extremism and terrorism. This process of joining is impossible without compliance with the UNESCO Declaration of tolerance principles and other UN documents dealing with the human rights.

On the whole the up-to-date assessment shows that in the socially diverse society the government has a clear task of being not only the organ of compulsion but, more important, of searching for consent in different fields of life. It is the search for an optimal measure of consent, a diapason of tolerance that becomes one of the main tasks of the state policy directed to the achievement of social trust and tolerance as factors of economic growth, social stability and personal security. All of the above-mentioned circumstances have determined the demand for the development of a Federal program on tolerance as a basis for the policy of achieving social consent, peace, tolerance of different social groups and of counteraction against extremism in our multinational, cross-confessional, multicultural society.

The Department of Education of the Russian Federation is the state requester of the Program. In 2001-2002 the Federal Grant Program was financed from the Federal Budget (the Item of Scientific Research) as it had been stated in the Government Decree N629 issued on August 25, 2001. The stated sum was 25,0 million rubles annually. The program is supposed to have three stages and should be implemented from 2001 until 2005. For the past period 47 participants from different regions of the Russian Federation, governmental and non-governmental structures, scientific, educational and social organizations won the 1st stage and the beginning of the 2nd stage competition. The program is being implemented in the following areas: the Republic of Adygei, Bashkortostan, Daghestan, Kabardino-Balkaria, Karelia, Karachaevo-Cherkessia, Mordovia, Northern Osetia, Tatarstan, Udmurtia; Krasnodar and Stavropol Territories; Belgorod, Kaluga, Kemerovo, Kirov, Kursk, Novosibirsk, Perm, Rostov, Samara, Tomsk and Yaroslavl regions; Komi-Permyatsky district, Moscow and St-Petersburg.

During the 1st stage of the Program implementation the main attention was paid to the three most important things: the organization of the monitoring of social intolerance and tension among different social groups and regions; the development of effective technologies, that can help to form social norms of tolerance; the development of pilot centers of tolerance and social security as a basic program network.

The general results of the social tension monitoring showed some basic factors that we need to take into consideration while predicting social risks and developing socio-economic programs on different levels. These factors are: the growth of population hyper-mobility that causes breaking of usual social distances between ethnic, confessional, generation and social society levels; the perception of cruelty, xenophobia, ethnophobia, migrantophobia as a common social norm and so overt or latent permission for using negative aggressive behavioral patterns in the activity of individuals and social groups; spreading of manipulative technologies that form attitudes "ours vs aliens"; making the enemy image; using the hostility language in mass media; creating radical "sites of hatred" in Internet, with teenagers and socially deprived levels of population as the main target.

The mentioned aspects appear clearly in the life of different social groups of higher social attention (adolescents, migrants, national minorities). Thus the teenagers' attitudes towards nationalism and extremism, different religions (including sects), informal youth unions was analyzed in a monitoring program "The problems of tolerance in the adolescent subculture" (2003). According to its outcome adolescents lack positive values and it often results in the fact that cruelty and extremism become a social norm and violence is viewed as an approved way of a national conflict resolution. We should mention the frightening fact that 34,2% of responders were indifferent to any radical youth groups including skinheads. These young people will form social and state life of our country in near future so it's very important to mention the following. It is their indifference to socially dangerous phenomena, cruelty and extremism as a usual norm of our living style that obviously proves the need of activation of the state tolerance policy in Russia.

The given facts show the demand for reviewing the norms and laws and forming the system of expertise that can lawfully deals with different kinds of cruelty, aggression and extremism. Due to the facts it's necessary to have a state psychological expertise as an effective tool for changing the present situation. The expertise should be included in the system of security, legislative and executive authorities, and mass media. The expertise is directed to objective identification of radical extremist materials in social life, mass media and Internet. Such an expertise increases the efficiency of lawful decisions while evaluating kinds of extremism in mass media.

Besides the necessity of psycholinguistic expertise of radical texts the Program shows the demand for developing humanitarian expertise of educational programs and textbooks; psychological and pedagogical expertise of entertaining production, especially computer games that often contribute to forming child and adolescent destructive behavior. The results of the humanitarian expertise show us that in textbooks and educational programs the history of mankind, different countries and civilizations is represented as the history of conflicts and wars. Such representation tends to shape the views of forced ways of conflict resolutions as a social norm. So it's very important to include in our books and programs the facts that demonstrate the positive role of cooperation, mutual understanding, tolerance of different religions, and peaceful dialog in the development of different cultures.

There have been developed socio-cultural, educational and socio-psy-chological technologies of forming tolerant attitudes for all educational levels including post-graduate and continued education. The special attention was paid to training programs for journalists, state employees, and law-enforcement officers, and especially to negotiation training programs. On the whole for the past period over 170 programs for different educational levels have been developed and approved, and over 200 handbooks and manuals have been prepared. All the measures increase social competence of social workers, managers and security workers in the issues of tolerance and counteraction against extremism.

The organizational and informational base of tolerance development is provided by Tolerance and social tension monitoring Centers. Karelian Center of Tolerance and Social Security, Moscow Center of Tolerance and Social Partnership, Rostov Center of Tolerance and Extremism Prevention of Russian South, Center of Tolerance in Udmurtia, Siberian Center of Tolerance and Social Security (Tomsk) are the regional models for organizing similar pilot centers. Each of them shows regional characteristics and provides successful adaptation of migrants, teenagers, representatives of different multiethnic and cross-confessional groups. The models are aimed to form tolerant attitudes. The pilot centers provide a constructive policy of tolerance development and conflicts prevention as opposed to reactive policy of actual conflicts resolution.

In 2004 it's necessary to apply the Program results into social practice, to attract mass media and social advertisement for social consent, trust, tolerance as factors of economic growth, social stability and personal security. That's why reducing aimed financing of the Program only to financing of scientific research obviously limits further Program implementation. According to obtained data we offer a broad system of measures on forming state policy of social consent, trust, tolerance and counteraction against extremism:

1. Annual report "Monitoring of social tension and predicting social risks in the Russian Federation" for the President of the Russian Federation.

2. Reinforcement of state programs, actions and campaigns in social life and mass media. Here we mean those programs that form trust to institutes of state power as organs of searching for social consent, tolerance, counteraction against different kinds of social aggression, cruelty and extremism.

3. The state psychological expertise included in the system of security and mass media. The expertise should be directed to fair identification of radical extremist materials in social life, mass media and Internet.

4. Organization of tolerance Centers and social tension monitoring network on federal, regional and municipal levels with the main task to increase competence of manager's decisions, prevent ethnic, religion and social conflicts, decrease social tension, develop tolerance on a group and individual levels.

5. Making socio-psychological crisis centers on federal, regional and municipal levels with the main task to maintain social health of the society, help victims of violence and cruelty.

6. The humanitarian expertise, psychological and pedagogical expertise of educational programs, textbooks, entertaining production, especially computer games. Using the expertise on federal and regional levels will help to form tolerance and prevention of destructive behavior.

7. Programs providing competence in the issues of forming tolerance, tolerance of religions, peace and counteraction against extremism. The programs should be included into educational standards of professional training of state employees, security workers, managers, mass media and pedagogical workers.

8. Development of programs of continuing professional education in the field of "Counseling and negotiating in the situations of social tension" for managers of different levels, security representatives, and social workers.

9. Opening a new division in the Federal Grant Program of Publishing - entitled "Forming tolerance, tolerance of religions, and counteraction against extremism"